This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book proposes a framework for analysis that draws on the broader literatures on policy processes and decentralization, as well as literature concerning migration-education linkages, educational inequality, urbanization, and policy processes in China. The book argues that, due in large part to the local policy environment, including district-level dynamics, the capacity of these actors to significantly impact the situations of migrant schools and their student's remains low. According to China Education and Research Network, with a total of 318 million students enrolled in educational institutions at various levels, China's government "prioritizes education as a fundamental and guiding cause with an overall importance to social and economic development". The book analyzes the impact of the municipal and district policy approaches on migrant schools in Beijing and draws attention to the gap between central-level policy ideals and the local reality.