This chapter focuses on state-civil society relations in migrant children's education; however, it does not analyze district-level variations in detail and was also written prior to the emergence of actors including many of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) now involved. The chapter shows, however, that, despite their initial role in bringing migrant children's education to the attention of the government and society, civil society actors in Beijing have been unable to have a large-scale impact. The civil society work towards improving the situation of migrant schools and their students and highlights the importance of adopting a more collaborative approach. The relationship between government and civil society in social welfare provision in China varies. The chapter examines the civil society actors involved in migrant children's education in Beijing, including their structure, their motives for being involved and their relationship to the policy environment in which they operate, and their capacity to impact the situations of migrant schools and their students.