Consider the most important and meaningful events in your life up to now: your birth, your ﬁrst day of school, a moment when you overcame a great challenge, the time you ﬁrst bonded with your closest friend, perhaps the loss of a loved one. Whichever these important events are, they are all events lying in your past. At one time they were present, at one time you were living them, you were a part of them. But now they are over. Time has passed. Time and you yourself have in a sense moved beyond these events. It is important to you that they happened, these are events that have shaped you and who you are. Some of what happened in the past may be forgotten. Although these events took place, you no longer possess memories of them. But we don’t want to deny that there are facts about what happened in the past. In some sense, these events are no longer happening. They are no longer real. But they did happen. They were real.