Bauman states that it is tempting (and perhaps comforting) to think of the Holocaust as a temporary breakdown of modern civilization. But, on the contrary, several familiar characteristics of modern society actually made the genocide more effective and efficient. First, Bauman argues that modernity has always been characterized by bold, optimistic (and many would say misguided) visions of creating a more perfectly organized and rational society. While some peoples’ visions might be harmlessly utopian, others, like Adolph Hitler, have been much more willing to use violence in trying to translate their visions of a perfectly ordered society into reality. Second, the characteristics of modern bureaucracy make the carrying out of such violence much easier and more efficient. The highly rationalized, hierarchical, and specialized division of labor characteristic of modern bureaucracy, for example, allowed those engaging in genocide to distance themselves from the moral consequences of their actions. Disturbingly, Bauman argues that the majority of the many Germans who did the tasks necessary to keep the killing machine up and running were not enraged psychopaths or even necessarily that anti-Semitic toward Jewish people. Rather, they were the quintessential modern workers who followed orders and completed their tasks in the most efficient way possible.