Marketing plans, milestones, and pro forma ﬁnancial statements-core elements of business plans-are no longer just the talk of for-proﬁt entrepreneurs. Today, many funders in the human service sector view grants and other funding mechanisms as investments. This new way of thinking requires that social work managers develop comprehensive business plans for human service programs and show how these programs will generate returns on investment. Even public-sector government agencies are embracing business planning as a best practice in light of signiﬁcant budget pressures and the need to stay focused on achieving outcomes for service recipients amid increased public scrutiny. A business plan differs somewhat from a traditional grant proposal and this chapter will attempt to point out those differences.