Knowledge about abuse and neglect and the long-term effects is critical to recovery and healing. Many adult children use the defense mechanisms of denial, rationalization, intellectualization, disassociation, and/or minimization. In addition to the use of defense mechanisms, children often are told by their abusers and other adults that their feelings are invalid and that the abuse and neglect aren’t that bad. By this point in therapy clients are well into the contemplation stage of change. They are more connected to their emotions and are able to develop insight from a variety of therapeutic techniques. Gentle confrontation from the therapist in the form of facts and reality testing is a part of breaking through denial and promotes accurate estimates of childhood experiences and the resultant damages.