This chapter analyzes expertise using a model originally applied to sports performance (Paivio, 1985), and extended here to other domains. The original model focused on cognitive and motivational effects of imagery on performance skills and game strategies, guided by verbal cues and instructions. It was depicted as a 2 × 2 orthogonal model consisting of cognitive versus motivational and specific versus general as its dimensions. The extended model, shown in Fig. 15.1, retains the cognitive-motivational and specific-general dimensions, gives equal weight to verbal and nonverbal processes, and distinguishes between performance and knowledge domains. Thus, the model is about cognitive and motivational effects of verbal and nonverbal stimuli and dual coding processes on specific and general aspects of human performance and expert knowledge. Dual coding model of factors used in the analysis of expert performance and knowledge: cognitive-motivational (C, M), specific-general (S, G), and verbal-nonverbal (V, NV). https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9781315785233/99db3120-43e6-4b08-a2ee-a4328fd01472/content/fig15_1_B.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/>