Chapter 4 was concerned with different methods of condensing a matrix of correlations and their comparison with principal components analysis. However, as was discussed in that chapter, even after factor analysis has been completed, by whatever method, factors have to be rotated before they can be interpreted. In principal components, for example, it an is artefact of the method that a general factor is produced followed by a series of bipolar factors. Thus interpretation of these components as reflecting anything but their algebra is dubious.