The meteorological phenomena of Japan reflect the climate of the neighbouring continent, inasmuch as they exhibit a moist hot summer and a long comparatively cold and clear winter. Monsoons and sea-currents are, as has been already pointed out, in addition to insolation and the orographical constitution of the Japanese islands the important factors upon which the character of their climate principally depends. The climate of Yezo and Saghalien is, in comparison with other parts of the world in the same latitude, very cold, and also that of Amurland, the remaining portions of the north-east monsoon district, however, has in winter negative, in summer positive thermal anomalies. In particular the provinces of Hokuroku-do between 35 and 39 N. present remarkable peculiarities of climate. Thus in the latter case there prevails a marked sea climate, and in the former case an almost continental climate.