The extent or range of formalized Participation in Decision Making arrangements in an organization can be conceived as lying on a scale. Many professionals and managers believe that participation in goal setting logically should increase the motivation of members to work for the attainment of group goals. The “area of freedom” permitted the participants is a separate dimension, not necessarily related to formalization. The autonomous work group model combines job redesign with participation in decision-making. Many people seem to believe that resistance to employee participation in decision making stems primarily from reluctant, obstinate, or autocratic managers. Flexitime offers an opportunity for employees to adapt their energy investments to the schedule variations that occur in their work loads, some of which are required by client or customer needs. Participation works best when the agenda is relevant to the employees’ experience and interests, and when the “area of freedom” is meaningful.