Public goods and commons
DOI link for Public goods and commons
Public goods and commons book
Recent empirical research asks people about their utility through questions about life satisfaction and happiness in household surveys. The World Database of Happiness collects such survey data and allows economists to analyse well-being and poverty directly. Horizontal inequality was defined above as group inequalities along social stratifications, such as ethnicity, geography, gender, and caste. Its causes are a combination of social exclusion, as explained in the social economic theory of poverty, and social norms, which may legitimise inequality. Horizontal inequalities can be large and persistent. In particular regional inequalities. Because they are often correlated with social divisions along the lines of ethnicity and concentration of economic activity. In Thailand, for example, regional inequalities are relatively large as compared to neighbouring countries. Income inequality in developed and developing countries increased by 10 per cent between 1990 and 2010, according to the UN. Major causes of poverty in developing countries are bad health, low education, and lack of employment.