The organization of this chapter reflects an historical perspective. We first address ourselves to a question that preoccupied early researchers in this area: Are there personality traits or predispositions that are associated with specific voice qualitites? We then turn to a more contemporary derivative of the same concern: What are the vocal or extralinguistic correlates of affective states, with special attention to the effects of anxiety arousal on speech. In the second half of this chapter, we discuss the effects of the social context and of cognitive planning and decision making on the encoding process - both representing recent developments in psycho linguistic research.