In Chapter 7 we outlined the protocols used to identify, operationalize, and assess target behaviors over time. Applied behavior analysis is also characterized by a series of experimental techniques known as single-case designs. These experimental techniques are used to determine if changes in the dependent variable or target behavior can be attributed to the independent variable or treatment. Single-case research designs are therefore used to examine whether treatment applications actually cause the desired change in the target behavior. In other words, these experimental techniques examine the functional relationships between changes in the environment and changes in the target behavior. Single-case designs are also unique in their ability to examine causally such functional relations with individual cases (i.e., one person) in addition to groups of individuals. Applied behavior analysts use several different types of singlecase designs. These designs can also be combined to tease out complex maintaining variables (Higgins-Hains & Baer, 1989). Despite the variety of single-case designs, they are all based on the same set of fundamental premises and techniques.