Terrace et ai. (1979) are not alone in this view. The overriding theme of the reports which describe symbol usage in apes (Gardner & Gardner, 1975; Miles, 1976; Patterson, 1978; Premack, 1976; Rumbaugh & Gill, 1976) suggest that the two basic contexts o f chimpanzee-produced symbols are requesting desired objects and associatively labeling objects displayed by the experimenter.