In addition to prohibitions and requirements related to tobacco sales to minors, enforcement of the sales laws is necessary for reducing the sales rate to minors (Gemson et al. , 1998 ; Rigotti et al. , 1997) . There are five issues related to enforcement of the minimum age of sales laws. First, the designation of a local agency that is primarily responsible for the enforcement of the law banning sales to minors can eliminate bu reaucratic complications regarding enforcement responsibilities . Sec ond, the requirement of annual, random, unannounced inspections of over-the-counter and vending machine tobacco sales can ensure that re tailers will undergo a minimum number of inspections. Typically, these inspections are conducted with the assistance of underage youth who are paid to attempt to purchase tobacco under the supervision of the en forcement agency. Third, allowing for the owners or licensees to be held accountable for the actions of their employees can provide addi tional incentive for people in management positions to train their em ployees in how to avoid illegal sales and to implement procedures that reduce the likelihood of illegal sales. Fourth, the establishment of civil penalties (e.g. , fines, license suspensions, etc . ) rather than criminal pen alties for those who violate the sales laws can increase the rate of en forcement since civil penalties generally require fewer prosecutorial resources and are usually met with less opposition from the community. The final provision involves the use of a graduated system of fines and license suspensions or revocations for retailers that sell tobacco prod ucts to minors and allows for greater accountability for repeat off end ers.