One study has examined the impact of minors' participation in to­ bacco purchase attempts (TPA' s) on the minors' likelihood that he or she will engage in smoking or illegal tobacco purchase attempts . Alcaraz et al . ( 1 997) surveyed forty-eight minors who attended tobacco education workshops. Afterwards, thirty-six of these minors were ran­ domly assigned to a TPA group. The remaining eleven minors were as­ signed to a control group that did not engage in TP A' s attempt to purchase cigarettes. After surveying the minors two years later, the au­ thors found that none of the minors initiated smoking habits. Further­ more, some of the minors in the TPA group were influential in helping their parents quit smoking or asking friends not to smoke. Thus, the mi­ nors ' participation in the TPA' s did not increase the likelihood of com­ mencing smoking habits. In fact, the authors felt that having minors involved in TPA' s would actually be an effective prevention effort to help keep minors and their peers from using tobacco.