Chapter 2 set out a number of social psychological approaches to the study of collective action. According to the theories discussed in that chapter, there are a number of ways in which we might expect more active individuals to differ from less active individuals. For example, we would expect individuals who are more highly involved in collective action to express higher levels of identifica­ tion with the group in question, as well as higher levels of political efficacy, collective relative deprivation and collectivist orientation. In accordance with the expectancy-value models of social behaviour, we would expect that more active individuals would associate greater benefits and fewer costs with participation than less active individuals.