To briefly revisit the study's main argument, economic reform in China, particularly over the last ten or so years, has changed how the 'state' is involved in industries like civil aviation, and, more importantly, has resulted in non-state factors playing an increasingly important role in shaping devel­ opments. Those characteristics of the 'state' that pre-reform approaches to Chinese political economy identified as being important, like central leaders and the local governments, remain so. So too do the more diverse array of state institutions (both structures and processes) contained in Lieberthal and Oksenberg's Fragmented Authoritarianism model of the policy environment in the energy sector developed during the early years of reform in the 1980s. It has been argued that in the more contemporary period, joining all of this has been new non-state factors that require a reassessment of preexisting state structures and processes, and which can also be considered capable of somewhat independently shaping some types of outcomes. Why this is so for the economy at large, and for capital intensive industries like civil aviation in particular, was explained in Chapter Three. From here on the volume moves from the general to the specific and assesses how true this argument is for civil aviation itself. This chapter focuses on civil aviation manufacturing and the following chapter performs the same assessment for air services.