The Chapter is divided into four sections. The first looks at the industry from the time when the first aircraft flew in China in 1909, up to 1949 when the communist government came to power. Aviation in China was not doc­ umented in great detail during this time and the section is largely descriptive with developments discussed mainly in relation to the historical events and major changes affecting the country in these years. The next two sections look at aircraft manufacturing and air services separately, beginning in 1949 and tracing through the Mao era up to the late 1970s when reform began. They look at each side of the industry's organization, infrastructure, and pro­ duction capabilities. The fourth section concludes by assessing the main fac­ tors shaping developments and outcomes, focusing mainly on the years between 1949-1978.