The first edition of this book did not have a chapter on publishing. Things have changed. Not only do doctoral researchers need to publish after graduation but, increasingly, during. This is not uncontentious. Some supervisors still are of the view that the major doctoral task is to get the research done and the dissertation written. Publication is left to the doctoral researcher to initiate and manage. However, a glance inside any post-doctoral award or junior lecturer selection committee will quickly show that newly minted doctors without publications are at a serious disadvantage. Universities now routinely expect doctoral graduates to arrive with two or three publications and plans for more. PhDs by publication are also becoming far more common, with candidates being expected to publish three or more papers in peer reviewed journals in order to achieve the award.