This chapter introduces three important applications, namely, measures, standards, Rasch regression, of Rasch measurement principles and techniques to solve the sorts of problems that many of us encounter in our human sciences research. It focuses the study which is used to develop a Rasch measurement physical fitness scale combining all, or at least some, of the indicators routinely used in Hong Kong primary schools. This study aimed to generate a unidimensional index of physical fitness for children, for tracking changes in fitness levels over time as well as estimating fitness differences between groups of children. The chapter illustrates well-functioning response category structures which indicate the successful implementation of polytomous Rasch measurement. It further introduces the Rasch-based objective standard-setting (OSS) models and OSS-judge-mediated examinations for the establishment of criterion-referenced performance standards on dichotomous and polytomous examinations to show how measurement and evaluative exercises are combined to ensure the validity of decisions about the cut score.