The design of pediatric intensive care units (PICU) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is a complex task in the context of a complex healthcare setting. Apart from the technological and medical requirements that must be integrated into the design of intensive care units, the needs of some of the most frail patients in the healthcare system and the most challenged families must be supported. All resources must be brought to bear to achieve the most appropriate environments, resources that include both experience and research. Since the advent of evidence-based design (EBD), however, there has been a heated discussion about the relationship between practice experience and scientific data. To adequately serve patients as designers and members of design teams, though, with EBD research. This chapter attempts to blend the two and generate recommended guidelines specific to these settings. Healthcare design strategies originate from a variety of disciplines, ranging from environmental and social psychology to finance.