When Lucia Downing began teaching in Vermont she was the only teacher in the only school in her community, making organizational issues such as specialized teachers or differentiation of function rather irrelevant. But that model of 'the little red schoolhouse', while 'still standing' in many rural communities, was clearly on its way to becoming a 'reminder of the days of long ago' as the United States moved into an era of urbanization, industrialization, and specialization (Downing, 1950); those changes, as Kilpatrick predicted, brought with them the 'ascendancy of the departmental plan' (p. 485).