The occupation of Kuwait was carried out with rare effectiveness, which was acknowledged by Iraq’s enemies as well as its friends. Chief among those who acknowledged the efficiency of the invasion were US Defense Department experts. The Iraqi president must have laughed long that night as he recalled the warm welcome given by the amir to the two pleasant surprises. Disregarding the sarcasm, Saddam Hussein was amazed at the intense coldness, both insinuated and open, with which Gulf leaders received his requests. The Gulf leaders were also surprised by the Iraqi leader’s continuation and intensification of his armament programme. Nothing justified the Iraqi war arsenal that was growing daily. Despite the warning signs, none of the Gulf leaders, even in their wildest dreams, expected that matters would actually end with the occupation of Kuwait. Every Arab leader and every foreign minister from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf was taking action.