‘Fundamentalism’ in the sense that it is used has no connection with the ‘Islamic awakening’ which means a rediscovery by Muslims of themselves, their creed, identity, and cultural distinction. The discussion of ‘political parties’ excludes from the sphere of ‘fundamentalism’ Islamic groups that carry out missionary work without assuming the form of a party or organization. Only shallow observers believe that every person who joins a ‘fundamentalist’ movement is motivated by selfish considerations. Those who explain the phenomenon of ‘fundamentalism’ in purely economic terms ignore the fact that a number of ‘fundamentalists’ cannot be considered poor by any objective criterion. The picture is further complicated by the fact that the ‘fundamentalist’ movement, over the years, was closely linked with the Gulf, and with Saudi Arabia in particular. Dr Hasan Al-Turabi expresses his regret, because the ‘fundamentalist’ movement achieved only a limited success in the Gulf because of the ulema.