THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SCHEMA
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The two traditional views of substance are that it is the ultimate subject of all predicates, and that it is the permanent substratum of change. Kant accepts the first view as involved in the very idea of substance, and suggested by the categorical form of judgement. When we translate it into terms of time, substance becomes the permanent subject of changing predicates, or the permanent substratum of change. Kant believes that substance belongs only to objects of outer sense; and it is with these that his proof is really concerned, although he professes to deal with all changing appearances. He now attempts to reinforce that conclusion by an argument resting upon the nature of time. This conclusion is then restated in other terms. The permanent is the substratum of the empirical idea of time itself, this clause though it professes only to re-state what has already been said is difficult.