The Principle of permanence
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The Principle of permanence book
The idealism which Kant wishes to refute is what he calls material idealism as opposed to his own formal or Critical idealism. It might also be called empirical idealism. Kant himself was obviously conscious of this weakness, he attempts to deal more fully, with the problem of inner sense and with the cognate problem of the relation between inner and outer sense. These two problems, together with a third, namely the meaning of the distinction between phenomena and noumena, must be touched upon before our task is finished. All of them raise fundamental questions as to the nature of Kant's transcendental idealism and its combination with what he calls empirical realism. This material or empirical idealism is of two typesthe problematic idealism of Descartes and the dogmatic idealism of Berkeley. Kant is assuming that in inner sense we have only a succession of ideas and nothing permanent in relation to which the succession can be determined.