O F 175,000 boys and girls aged 14 to 18 in 1962-63 only 84,0001 -or less than one-half-were receiving secondary education in the ordinary sense. The rest may be classified as 'Working

Youth'. Of these, 9,000 were receiving full-time vocational training ('Miscellaneous') ; 20,000 were receiving education part-timeEvening Classes, elementary or secondary, or Classes for Apprentices; the remainder, over 60,000, that is over one-third of all the young people concerned, were receiving no organized education whatever. This is the black spot of Israel education. It is to be remembered that most of these working youth are immigrants, and, of these, most are of Oriental parentage. They are out of school primarily because they have to earn, to help the family budget. This sector of the youth, who are most in need of education, receive the least-or none at all.