In the nineteenth century education policy developed incrementally, that is in a bitby-bit manner (see Hill, 2003). During that century Christian elementary schools (‘voluntary schools’) began to be established. In the 1830s the government started to provide funding assistance, which then led the government to establish a Schools Inspectorate in 1839 in order to monitor the effectiveness of state-funded schooling (see Table 15.1). By the second half of the nineteenth century, society had become concerned with the lack of education of the poorer parts of the population. The concern was largely articulated in two respects. First, with the expansion of industrialisation, there was a greater appreciation of the need for an educated workforce. Second, with the widening of the franchise (those eligible to vote in elections), there was a concern that these new voters would not be sufﬁciently well informed to exercise their vote properly.