Geographies of the nation have focused on deﬁning and exploring the production and contestation of national identities, nationalism and citizenship. Around the world an increasing number of nation states are under threat from nationalist movements which threaten to dissolve them from below. Likewise, processes of globalization, and the emergence of supranational and transnational organizations are alleged to have made the boundaries of nation states increasingly irrelevant and therefore to be threatening the sovereignty of nation states from above. The growing importance of social identiﬁcations such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality and disability also stand accused of undermining citizens’ attachments and loyalty to the state. As a result of these trends, and a recognition of the interconnectedness and interdependence of nations, various international regimes of governance and new notions of global citizenship are emerging.