In previous Chapters I attempted to characterize translation competence in a second language acquisition framework. The impetus behind the work was the lack of a general model to underpin the teaching and learning of translation. The work reported in this chapter arose from a different kind of need - the need to find answers to a pressing practical difficulty. My difficulty was that when my students failed translation subjects or assignments, they often expressed inordinate surprise; some students seemed to think they were much better translators than they really were. In investigating the problem, I was led to the conclusion that here was another facet of translation competence.