In Chapter 1, we pointed out four landmarks that this book will keep in view - second language acquisition, interlanguage, language above the level of the sentence, and levels of competence. In this chapter I want to point out another landmark that has already appeared but is such an important feature that it deserves some detailed discussion and justifica­ tion. This is the issue of the inevitability of translation into the second language, which will be argued in this chapter with reference to the general situation of translation in Australia and Finland, and in Chapter 3 with reference to a detailed study in Australia.