In K ellerm an, A m m erlaan, B ongaerts an d Poulisse (1990), an a ttem p t was m ade to com pare LI an d L2 strategic language use an d to consider strategies in term s o f m ental processes ra th e r th an linguistic p roducts. In a shape-descrip tion task, K ellerm an et al. (1990) observed the use o f referen tial strategies by D utch speakers o f English as a second language, b o th in LI and L2. They classified these strategies as holistic, partitive, o r linear, and proposed a h ierarchy o f p re ference , based on subjects’ usage, o f holistic over partitive over linear. T h e h ierarchy was, they claim ed, opera tional both for pairs o f LI and L2 descrip tions (cross-language) an d for single descrip tions (w ith in-language).