It is alm ost two decades since the first studies o f com m unication strategies (CS) ap p eared in prin t. Since its inception , the field has m oved from broadly addressing foreign language learners attem pts to solve a host o f encod ing and decoding problem s in a foreign language towards a m ore specific focus on lea rn ers’ speech encod ing and m anagem ent o f problem atic lexical items.