The revolution of 1688 marked the start of a period of increasing difficulty for the Scottish economy. Scotland was dragged into wars with France which lasted from 1689–97 and 1701–13. Loss of French markets was accompanied by the depredations of French privateers which disrupted Scotland’s coasting as well as overseas trade. Protection of Scottish merchant vessels by English warships was limited while war also brought Royal Navy press-gangs and higher taxation. A slump in textile production contributed to the widespread impoverishment of the population. Scotland faced increasing problems as more and more of its trading partners adopted mercantilist policies and erected tariff barriers. The Scots desperately needed international trade but international trade did not need the Scots. Scotland’s population was less than a fifth of that of England and a twentieth of France. When such large countries were extending protectionist policies the Scots could do little in retaliation.