Peace activity has increased significantly since 1945. Numbers of peace groups and a variety of peace campaigns have multiplied in North America and North-West Europe, where a tradition of peace action was already well established. Peace protest has in addition spread to other parts of Europe, and to other continents where previously independent peace groups were weak or nonexistent. Although many campaigns came and went, by 1990 transnational peace activity appeared to be permanently established on a wider scale than in the past. Indeed, the growth of peace protest can be seen as part of a more general growth in the numbers of voluntary citizens’ groups – like Amnesty International – and a growing transnational consciousness fostered by the world coverage provided by television and radio. 1