The first wave of protests against nuclear weapons and nuclear testing can accurately be described as a movement. Mass protests in many countries encouraged passionate debates in political parties, trade unions, professional associations and religious bodies, although these debates sometimes preceded public protest. Widespread media coverage of nuclear weapons issues and of demonstrations heightened public awareness of the dangers of radiation and the risks of nuclear war. So governments in the West had to justify policies of nuclear deterrence and respond to public concern about nuclear fall-out.