Previous chapters explored the major campaigns against nuclear weapons and against the Vietnam War, which brought peace movements onto the front pages of newspapers and which challenged governments to change course. This chapter looks at examples of longer-term pacifist action designed to alter ideas and attitudes or influence policies on arms and military defence. Continuity in peace activity has been encouraged by national and international peace organizations dating from before the Second World War, but many new peace groupings have sprung up to pursue specific issues such as the arms trade.