ABSTRACT

In this final chapter I shall discuss alternative strategies for the future development of welfare rights. I want to suggest that there are two broad kinds of strategy available, though each is susceptible to widely differing interpretations and neither by itself contains a sufficient answer to the question of whether welfare rights may yet provide more dependable guarantees of human welfare. The first kind of strategy is premised on reformism and the second on resistance. What distinguishes reformism from resistance is that the former seeks to compromise with or improve upon the existing social order, while the latter seeks to subvert or supersede it. Reformism is likely to look upon the advancement of rights as an end in itself. Resistance is likely to regard rights as a means to an end. The distinction drawn earlier in this book between systemic and agential assumptions comes into play. Reformism focuses on the modification or creation of systems. Resistance focuses on the harnessing or the promotion of different kinds of agency. However, as with the models that are presented in Chapter 10, this distinction intersects with another — that between contractarian expectations of the relationship between citizen and state on the one hand and solidaristic expectations on the other. The analysis in the next part of this chapter is therefore summarised in Figure 11.1, which illustrates two kinds of Strategies of reform and resistance https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9781315847726/c6fa47bc-2238-428b-a742-b266addb1dfc/content/fig11_1_B.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/> reformism — rights-based reformism and administrative reformism; and two kinds of resistance — anarchistic resistance and popular resistance.