The term ‘welfare rights’ is subject to a variety of interpretations. Sometimes it is used rather specifically to refer to specialised individual entitlements created by domestic social legislation, particularly those relating to social security or cash benefits. Sometimes it is used to refer to the arena of professional practice in which welfare rights specialists, advice workers and welfare lawyers engage. Sometimes it is used more generally to refer to the level of social protection that is, or that perhaps ought to be, guaranteed to the citizens of a ‘welfare state’. This book is concerned with all senses of the term, including its practical and conceptual connotations.