A long time ago, in a television galaxy not so far away, the world of television was live to the world. Anything you saw came directly from performers and the tubes of cameras and out of broadcast antennas to your living room. The only way you could record, archive, or playback a production was to use celluloid fi lm. Then, in 1956, a company called Ampex created two-inch videotape that altered the television universe. With the invention of videotape, television gained the ability to record programs for playback. About a decade later, editing became possible with videotape and a whole new avenue of manipulating images became possible. Many of the skills practiced by fi lm editors became possible with videotape. Over time, people developed techniques and equipment to further refi ne the videotape editing process.