This book is about fundamental issues that concern us all. What predisposes us to act kindly? Have we evolved to be sel sh or cooperative? How do our moral senses form? What undermines this? How do parenting and family life shape how moral we are? What is the role of our biology or genes? What is the in uence of the particular culture that we are born into? Is contemporary Western society, with its individualistic values, leading us to become less moral but more impulsive and sel sh?