After the collapse of the world’s largest ethno-federal entity, the Soviet Union, in 1991 the interest in studies of ethnicity, nations and nationalism has dramatically increased. Similarly, in a world with arguably an unprecedented level of human mobility through improved transport and communication links, the research and literature on diaspora communities and migrant groups that reside outside of their perceived ‘homelands’ have lately been growing at a phenomenal pace. Therefore, it is imperative to examine the various schools of thought on nations and nationalism, and the concepts of diaspora and transnationalism before presenting the analysis of the political history of the Circassian diaspora in Turkey between 1864 and 2011.