Uneven development is a defining feature of our cities. Throughout the dramatic changes that have occurred since the rise of the industrial city, the overarching purpose of urban revitalization policy has been to combat the negative effects of the always shifting landscape of uneven development. Historically, economic fortunes changed and private investment moved from one neighborhood or region to another. The result has been to enhance the prospects of some and hurt those of others. When governments channel resources to specific areas, they can affect positive change, but they can also contribute to the process of uneven development. Many times, their decisions help those in need of assistance, but frequently the result has been to improve the conditions in specific places and set into motion a process of displacement or exclusion. Various actors, from private developers and those in public office to everyday residents, make decisions that cumulatively open up or limit opportunities in different places, from neighborhood blocks to regions and nations. This process of “creative destruction” reconfigures places, their built environments, businesses, and life opportunities.