In section II, we examine important moments in urban revitalization policy and the key actors that make urban revitalization happen. In chapter 3, we begin by concentrating on three federal policy agendas between the 1940s and 1970s: urban renewal, the War on Poverty, and the New Federalism. Federal policies provide significant sources of funding for revitalization efforts, and federal regulations also influence how urban revitalization projects are designed and implemented. In chapter 4, we turn our attention to the development of neoliberal governance and the ways that this political framework has reshaped approaches to urban revitalization from the 1970s to the present. This discussion is set against the backdrop of urban economic restructuring. Each of these periods marks a shift in the contours of urban policy. Through this policy survey, we contextualize the historical causes of decline in different urban areas and the ways in which the federal government responded. We also see how the larger economic and political context intersects with local conditions to shape policy decisions and outcomes. In chapter 5, we focus our attention on the politics of urban development and the people involved in urban revitalization at the local level. Here we look at how an array of actors, from grassroots activists to business-oriented urban regimes, clash and collaborate to shape the development process and revitalization outcomes.