In line with the strategic objectives of the World Heritage Committee, sites should be managed through participatory approaches. Managing World Heritage sustainably should involve collaborating with stakeholders in decision-making throughout the management process. Recognition of local knowledge, pre-existing governance systems and the wide range of values associated with a place should facilitate long-term management and conservation of OUV. This chapter discusses the factors and practices that assist in securing an effective and sustainable management approach. Adaptive management emerged from the ecological sciences in recognition of the complexity and variability of ecosystem processes and functions. A toolkit for assessing management effectiveness for natural World Heritage sites emerged from the WCPA framework as part of a project run by IUCN and UNESCO and funded by the UN Foundation. The importance of financial stability for World Heritage properties is recognized in the text of the convention, in the Operational Guidelines and in the procedures for periodic reporting.