In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. Glacial ice began to melt from the northern hemisphere around 30,000 years ago; this moist and warmer climate provided food not only for humans, but for mammoths, reindeer, and bison. Many experts now believe that food production began independently in other places, such as America and West Africa. History was still blind when our early ancestors stood up on two legs, and began to get not only food but information. The Romans put out their Acta Diurna, which is considered the first newspaper, but the age of print really began when Johannes Gutenberg adapted movable metal type to central Europe's wine presses, and made universal printing a reality. The greatest achievement—and reason for survival—for Homo sapiens has been plasticity of mind. Culture has always been “popu-lar,” thriving on formula, archetypes, and stereotypes, as well as fads and follies.