Many Americans were concerned about these newcomers, and in­ security set in as images of Latinos as “barbarians at the gate invading our cities” and communities took hold.2 The latest image is discussed in Juan Gonzalez’s3 introduction to A History of Latinos in America, where he describes “They saw images of Mexican street gangs in Los Angeles and Phoenix, Puerto Rican unmarried mothers on welfare in New York and Boston, Colombian drug dealers in Miami, or illegal Central American laborers in Houston and San Francisco. These immi­ grants, they were told in countless news reports, refused to assimilate, clung to their native language and culture, and were disproportionately

swelling the ranks of the country’s poor.” In reaction, “law and order” politicians demanded tougher immigration laws and harsher sentences for those overstaying their welcome, even while hate crimes directed against immigrants swelled.4 Yet, as the size of the Latino population skyrocketed, many thought Latino crime grew, and thought that Latino neighborhoods were dangerous places to live and visit. This chapter continues the complex saga of Latinos within the United States.