By 2001, the outlines of a state role in defence had become discernible, with some momentum coming from the technical requirement to expand the SCMM Secretariat. Moreover, SFOR’s work with the entity armies through the Joint Military Commission, primarily in relation to common military standards, provided some reinforcement. This dynamic was accelerated by BiH’s decision that year to seek membership of the PfP and NATO’s decision to take the unusual step of defining the measures that BiH should implement in order to strengthen its candidacy for the partnership.1