Rohan Maxwell is one of a very small number of international staff who has spent almost ten years working and living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, so he, with John Andreas Olsen, has the first-hand knowledge to describe and comment on the defence-reform process there. The account naturally concentrates on the crucial period of 200305, when the process was accorded special priority by High Representative Lord Paddy Ashdown, but the authors also cover the period 19962002 and from 2006 to the present in order to draw conclusions applicable to contemporary defence reform in general.